As the disease is autoimmune, there is hair loss from most common life, scalp in the form of solitary or multiple patches of alopecia. When the immune system attack the hair follicle – Increased no. of telogen follicles & presence of inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the peribular region Follicles may react in one of three ways Severe damage may break the hair in keratogenous zone followed by breakage in oval/ round patch, when weak zone reaches plane of scalp; some time follicle is precipitated in to catagen & hair intruded as an exclamation mark . Follicle may precipitate into catagen with loss of club in a normal manner, followed by replacement of a dystrophic anagen hair. Follicle may become dystrophic nutrient catagen phase. Patchy alopecia areata is the most common form occurring in 75% of patients.
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Here is the detailed explanation of why alopecia areata happens.
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